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Nil Bohr-sets and almost automorphy of higher order

About this Title

Wen Huang, Song Shao and Xiangdong Ye

Publication: Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society
Publication Year: 2016; Volume 241, Number 1143
ISBNs: 978-1-4704-1872-4 (print); 978-1-4704-2879-2 (online)
Published electronically: December 11, 2015
Keywords:Nilpotent Lie group, nilsystem, Bohr set, Poincaré recurrence, generalized polynomials, almost automorphy, Birkhoff recurrence set, the regionally proximal relation of order $d$

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Table of Contents


  • Chapter 1. Introduction
  • Chapter 2. Preliminaries
  • Chapter 3. Nilsystems
  • Chapter 4. Generalized polynomials
  • Chapter 5. Nil Bohr$_0$-sets and generalized polynomials: c Proof of Theorem B
  • Chapter 6. Generalized polynomials and recurrence sets: Proof of Theorem C
  • Chapter 7. Recurrence sets and regionally proximal relation of order $d$
  • Chapter 8. $d$-step almost automorpy and recurrence sets
  • Appendix A.


Two closely related topics: higher order Bohr sets and higher order almost automorphy are investigated in this paper. Both of them are related to nilsystems. In the first part, the problem which can be viewed as the higher order version of an old question concerning Bohr sets is studied: for any $d∈\mathbb N$ does the collection of ${n∈\mathbb Z: S∩(S-n)∩…∩(S-dn)≠∅}$ with $S$ syndetic coincide with that of Nil$_{d}$ Bohr$_{0}$-sets? It is proved that Nil$_{d}$ Bohr$_{0}$-sets could be characterized via generalized polynomials, and applying this result one side of the problem is answered affirmatively: for any Nil$_{d}$ Bohr$_{0}$-set $A$, there exists a syndetic set $S$ such that $A⊃{n∈\mathbb Z: S∩(S-n)∩…∩(S-dn)≠∅}.$ Moreover, it is shown that the answer of the other side of the problem can be deduced from some result by Bergelson-Host-Kra if modulo a set with zero density. In the second part, the notion of $d$-step almost automorphic systems with $d∈\mathbb N∪{∞}$ is introduced and investigated, which is the generalization of the classical almost automorphic ones. It is worth to mention that some results concerning higher order Bohr sets will be applied to the investigation. For a minimal topological dynamical system $(X,T)$ it is shown that the condition $x∈X$ is $d$-step almost automorphic can be characterized via various subsets of $\mathbb Z$ including the dual sets of $d$-step Poincaré and Birkhoff recurrence sets, and Nil$_{d}$ Bohr$_{0}$-sets. Moreover, it turns out that the condition $(x,y)∈X×X$ is regionally proximal of order $d$ can also be characterized via various subsets of $\mathbb Z$.

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