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Mathematics Unbound: The Evolution of an International Mathematical Research Community, 1800-1945
Edited by: Karen Hunger Parshall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, and Adrian C. Rice, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA
A co-publication of the AMS and the London Mathematical Society.

History of Mathematics
2002; 406 pp; hardcover
Volume: 23
ISBN-10: 0-8218-2124-5
ISBN-13: 978-0-8218-2124-4
List Price: US$103
Member Price: US$82.40
Order Code: HMATH/23
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Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years--from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike.

This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only developments within component national mathematical communities, such as the growth of societies and journals, but also more wide-ranging political, philosophical, linguistic, and pedagogical issues.

The resulting volume is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of modern mathematics. It will be of interest to mathematicians, historians of mathematics, and historians of science in general.


Graduate students, research mathematicians, and historians of mathematics.


"These excellent proceedings further testify to the fact that the internationalization of mathematics is a topic whose time has come."

-- Mathematical Reviews

Table of Contents

  • K. H. Parshall and A. C. Rice -- The evolution of an international mathematical research community, 1800-1945: An overview and an agenda
  • I. Grattan-Guinness -- The end of dominance: The diffusion of French mathematics elsewhere, 1820-1870
  • E. Ausejo and M. Hormigón -- Spanish initiatives to bring mathematics in Spain into the international mainstream
  • S. E. Despeaux -- International mathematical contributions to British scientific journals, 1800-1900
  • J. Lützen -- International participation in Liouville's Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées
  • H. Gispert -- The effects of war on France's international role in mathematics, 1870-1914
  • T. Archibald -- Charles Hermite and German mathematics in France
  • J. E. Barrow-Green -- Gösta Mittag-Leffler and the foundation and administration of Acta Mathematica
  • L. Martini -- An episode in the evolution of a mathematical community: The case of Cesare Arzelà at Bologna
  • A. Brigaglia -- The first international mathematical community: The Circolo matematico di Palermo
  • J. J. Gray -- Languages for mathematics and the language of mathematics in a world of nations
  • C. Sasaki -- The emergence of the Japanese mathematical community in the modern western style, 1855-1945
  • J. W. Dauben -- Internationalizing mathematics east and west: Individuals and institutions in the emergence of a modern mathematical community in China
  • Y. Xu -- Chinese-U. S. mathematical relations, 1859-1949
  • D. D. Fenster -- American initiatives toward internationalization: The case of Leonard Dickson
  • R. Siegmund-Schultze -- The effects of Nazi rule on the international participation of German mathematicians: An overview and two case studies
  • S. L. Segal -- War, refugees, and the creation of an international mathematical community
  • O. Lehto -- The formation of the international mathematical union
  • Index
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