Approximations for hand calculators using small integer coefficients

Author:
Stephen E. Derenzo

Journal:
Math. Comp. **31** (1977), 214-222

MSC:
Primary 65D20

MathSciNet review:
0423761

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Abstract: Methods are presented for deriving approximations containing small integer coefficients. This approach is useful for electronic hand calculators and programmable calculators, where it is important to minimize the number of keystrokes necessary to evaluate the function. For example, the probability of exceeding *x* standard deviations of either sign (Gaussian probability integral) is approximated by

**[1]**Cecil Hastings Jr.,*Approximations for digital computers*, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1955. Assisted by Jeanne T. Hayward and James P. Wong, Jr. MR**0068915****[2]**J. F. HART ET AL.,*Computer Approximations*, Wiley, New York, 1968.**[3]**For cases where the absolute error is important, is equal to a constant. For cases where the relative error is important, is proportional to .**[4]**STEPHEN E. DERENZO, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Group A Programming Note P-190, Berkeley, Calif., 1969. Most other minimizing codes can also be used.**[5]**STEPHEN E. DERENZO, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report No. LBL-3804, Berkeley, Calif., March, 1975. (Available from the author.)**[6]**Henceforth we use the term "best fit coefficients" to mean those that result from the minimization of*D*(Eq. (2)).**[7]**The number given after the symbol is the amount that the corresponding coefficient must be varied from its best fit value to double the value of*D*, holding all other coefficients at their best fit values.**[8]**O. KLEIN AND Y. NISHINA,*Nature*, v. 122, 1928, p. 398. Formulas are also available in the*American Institute of Physics Handbook*, 3rd ed. (D. E. Gray, Editor), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972, pp. 8-197.**[9]**J. H. HUBBELL,*Photon Cross Sections, Attenuation Coefficients, and Energy Absorption Coefficients from*10 keV*to*100 GeV, Report No. NSRDS-NBS 29, U. S. Nat. Bur. of Standards, 1969.

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DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-1977-0423761-X

Article copyright:
© Copyright 1977
American Mathematical Society