Gross spaces

Authors:
Saharon Shelah and Otmar Spinas

Journal:
Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. **348** (1996), 4257-4277

MSC (1991):
Primary 11E04, 03E35; Secondary 12L99, 15A36

DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9947-96-01658-3

MathSciNet review:
1357403

Full-text PDF

Abstract | References | Similar Articles | Additional Information

Abstract: A *Gross space* is a vector space of infinite dimension over some field , which is endowed with a symmetric bilinear form and has the property that every infinite dimensional subspace satisfies dim dim. Gross spaces over uncountable fields exist (in certain dimensions). The existence of a Gross space over countable or finite fields (in a fixed dimension not above the continuum) is independent of the axioms of ZFC. Here we continue the investigation of Gross spaces. Among other things, we show that if the cardinal invariant **b** equals , a Gross space in dimension exists over every infinite field, and that it is consistent that Gross spaces exist over every infinite field but not over any finite field. We also generalize the notion of a Gross space and construct generalized Gross spaces in ZFC.

**[B/S]**B. Balcar and P. Simon,*Cardinal invariants in Boolean spaces*, General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra V, Proc. Fifth Prague Topol. Symp. 1981 (J. Novak, ed.), Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1982, pp. 39-47. MR**84f:06024****[B]**J. E. Baumgartner,*Iterated forcing, Surveys of set theory*, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, no. 87 (A.R.D. Mathias, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 1-59. MR**87c:03099****[B/Sp]**J. E. Baumgartner and O. Spinas,*Independence and consistency proofs in quadratic form theory*, Journal of Symbolic Logic**57, no. 4**(1991), 1195-1211. MR**93b:11042****[B/G]**W. Baur and H. Gross,*Strange inner product spaces*, Comment. Math. Helv. 52 (1977), 491-495. MR**56:15680****[B/Sh]**A. Blass and S. Shelah,*There may be simple - and -points and the Rudin-Keisler ordering may be downward directed*, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic**53**(1987), 213-243. MR**88e:03073****[vD]**E. K. van Douwen,*The integers and topology*, Handbook of set-theoretic topology (K. Kunen and J. E. Vaughan, eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1984, pp. 111-167. MR**87f:54008****[F]**D. H. Fremlin,*Cicho\'{n}'s diagram*, Initiation à l'Analyse, Université Piere et Marie Curie, Paris, 1985.**[G]**H. Gross,*Quadratic forms in infinite dimensional vector spaces*, Progress in Mathematics, vol. 1, Birkhäuser, Boston, 1979. MR**81f:10027****[G/O]**H. Gross and E. Ogg,*Quadratic spaces with few isometries*, Comment. Math. Helv. 48 (1973), 511-519. MR**51:6360****[Go]**M. Goldstern,*Tools for your forcing construction*, Set theory of the reals (H. Judah, ed.), Proceedings of the Bar Ilan Conference in honour of Abraham Fraenkel 1991, pp. 305-360. MR**94h:03102****[J]**T. Jech,*Set theory*, Academic Press, New York, 1978. MR**80a:03062****[J/Sh]**H. Judah and S. Shelah,*Souslin forcing*, Journal of Symbolic Logic**53, no. 4**(1988), 1188-1207. MR**90h:03035****[K]**K. Kunen,*Set theory. An introduction to independence proofs*, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980. MR**82f:03001****[Sh1]**S. Shelah,*Proper forcing*, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 942, Springer, 1982. MR**84h:03002****[Sh2]**S. Shelah,*On cardinal invariants of the continuum*, Proceedings of the 6/83 Boulder conference in set theory (J. Baumgartner D. Martin and S. Shelah, eds.), Contemporary mathematics, vol. 31, AMS, 1984, pp. 183-207. MR**86g:03064****[Sh3]**S. Shelah,*Vive la difference I*, Nonisomorphism of ultrapowers of countable models, in: Set theory of the continuum (H. Judah, W. Just, H. Woodin, eds.), Springer, New York, 1992, pp. 357-405. MR**94g:03068****[Sh4]**S. Shelah,*Strong negative partition relations below the continuum*, Acta Math. Hungar. 58, no. 1-2 (1991), 95-100. MR**93d:03052****[Sh5]**S. Shelah,*There are Jo\'{n}sson algebras in many inaccessible cardinals*, Cardinal Arithmetic, Oxford University Press, 1994.**[Sh6]**S. Shelah,*Further cardinal arithmetic*, in press ([Sh430] in Shelah's list of publications), Israel Journal of Mathematics.**[Sh7]**S. Shelah,*Colouring and -c.c. not productive*, in preparation ([Sh572] in Shelah's list of publications).**[Sp1]**O. Spinas,*Konsistenz- und Unabhängigkeitsresultate in der Theorie der quadratischen Formen*, Dissertation, University of Zürich, 1989.**[Sp2]**O. Spinas,*Iterated forcing in quadratic form theory*, Israel Journal of Mathematics 79 (1991), 297-315. MR**94k:03068****[Sp3]**O. Spinas,*An undecidability result in lattice theory*, Abstracts of papers presented to the AMS**11, no. 2.**(March 1990), 161.**[Sp4]**O. Spinas,*Cardinal invariants and quadratic forms*, Set theory of the reals (H. Judah, ed.), Proceedings of the Bar Ilan Conference in honour of Abraham Fraenkel 1991, pp. 563-581. MR**94f:03059**

Retrieve articles in *Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*
with MSC (1991):
11E04,
03E35,
12L99,
15A36

Retrieve articles in all journals with MSC (1991): 11E04, 03E35, 12L99, 15A36

Additional Information

**Saharon Shelah**

Affiliation:
Department of Mathematics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram, Jerusalem, Israel

Email:
shelah@math.huji.ac.il

**Otmar Spinas**

Affiliation:
Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, California 92717

Email:
ospinas@math.uci.edu

DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9947-96-01658-3

Received by editor(s):
August 1, 1995

Additional Notes:
The authors are supported by the Basic Research Foundation of the Israel Academy of Science.

Article copyright:
© Copyright 1996
American Mathematical Society