Values of Gaussian hypergeometric series

Author:
Ken Ono

Journal:
Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. **350** (1998), 1205-1223

MSC (1991):
Primary 11T24

DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9947-98-01887-X

MathSciNet review:
1407498

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Abstract: Let be prime and let be the finite field with elements. In this note we investigate the arithmetic properties of the Gaussian hypergeometric functions

where and respectively are the quadratic and trivial characters of For all but finitely many rational numbers there exist two elliptic curves and for which these values are expressed in terms of the trace of the Frobenius endomorphism. We obtain bounds and congruence properties for these values. We also show, using a theorem of Elkies, that there are infinitely many primes for which is zero; however if or , then the set of such primes has density zero. In contrast, if or , then there are only finitely many primes for which Greene and Stanton proved a conjecture of Evans on the value of a certain character sum which from this point of view follows from the fact that is an elliptic curve with complex multiplication. We completely classify all such CM curves and give their corresponding character sums in the sense of Evans using special Jacobsthal sums. As a consequence of this classification, we obtain new proofs of congruences for generalized Apéry numbers, as well as a few new ones, and we answer a question of Koike by evaluating over every

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Additional Information

**Ken Ono**

Affiliation:
School of Mathematics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540;
Department of Mathematics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802

Email:
ono@math.ias.edu, ono@math.psu.edu

DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9947-98-01887-X

Keywords:
Gaussian hypergeometric series,
elliptic curves,
Ap\'{e}ry numbers,
character sums

Received by editor(s):
September 8, 1995

Received by editor(s) in revised form:
July 3, 1996

Additional Notes:
The author is supported by NSF grants DMS-9304580 and DMS-9508976.

Article copyright:
© Copyright 1998
American Mathematical Society