The connection between mathematics and art goes back thousands of years. Mathematics has been used in the design of Gothic cathedrals, Rose windows, oriental rugs, mosaics and tilings. Geometric forms were fundamental to the cubists and many abstract expressionists, and award-winning sculptors have used topology as the basis for their pieces. Dutch artist M.C. Escher represented infinity, Möbius bands, tessellations, deformations, reflections, Platonic solids, spirals, symmetry, and the hyperbolic plane in his works.

Mathematicians and artists continue to create stunning works in all media and to explore the visualization of mathematics--origami, computer-generated landscapes, tesselations, fractals, anamorphic art, and more.

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# "Coiled Figure Eight," by Nat Friedman (University at Albany, NY)

## 3/8“ copper tubing, wood dowel, gorilla glue, 13" x 10" x 9", 2008. Copper tubing comes in a coil so is naturally “rounded”. A knot diagram is coiled if the diagram can be traced in a constant clockwise direction. A coiled diagram is also referred to as being in a braid configuration. The typical diagram of a figure eight knot in a knot table is not coiled. The diagram of the figure eight knot shown above is coiled. A coiled diagram is suitable for forming a corresponding copper tubing knot since the natural rounded curvature of the tubing can be maintained as the knot is formed. I form copper tubing knots by hand. One must be careful not to "crink" the tubing. The ends are joined using a wooden dowel and gorilla glue. Knots are ideal mathematical forms for sculptures since a knot is completely three-dimensional with no preferred top, bottom, front, or back and can look completely different from different viewpoints. --- Nat Friedman (University at Albany, NY) www.isama.org

 Art & Music, MathArchives Geometry in Art & Architecture, by Paul Calter (Dartmouth College) Harmony and Proportion, by John Boyd-Brent International Society of the Arts, Mathematics and Architecture Journal of Mathematics and the Arts Mathematics and Art, the April 2003 Feature Column by Joe Malkevitch Maths and Art: the whistlestop tour, by Lewis Dartnell Mathematics and Art, (The theme for Mathematics Awareness Month in 2003) MoSAIC - Mathematics of Science, Art, Industry, Culture Viewpoints: Mathematics and Art, by Annalisa Crannell (Franklin & Marshall College) and Marc Frantz (Indiana University) Visual Insight, blog by John Baez