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Math ImageryThe connection between mathematics and art goes back thousands of years. Mathematics has been used in the design of Gothic cathedrals, Rose windows, oriental rugs, mosaics and tilings. Geometric forms were fundamental to the cubists and many abstract expressionists, and award-winning sculptors have used topology as the basis for their pieces. Dutch artist M.C. Escher represented infinity, Möbius bands, tessellations, deformations, reflections, Platonic solids, spirals, symmetry, and the hyperbolic plane in his works.

Mathematicians and artists continue to create stunning works in all media and to explore the visualization of mathematics--origami, computer-generated landscapes, tesselations, fractals, anamorphic art, and more.

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"Bull Moose, opus 413," by Robert J. Lang. Medium: One uncut square of Nepalese lokta, composed and folded in 2002, 6". Image courtesy of Robert J. Lang. Photograph by Robert J. Lang.The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation.

--- Robert J. Lang
Sep 04, 2007
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"Night Hunter, opus 469," by Robert J. Lang. Medium: One uncut square of Korean hanji, composed and folded in 2003, 18". Image courtesy of Robert J. Lang. Photograph by Robert J. Lang.The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation.

--- Robert J. Lang
Sep 04, 2007
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"Persian Rug (Recursian I)," by Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)An applet uses a recursive (repeatedly applied) procedure to make designs that resemble Persian rugs. You may choose 3 parameters a, b and c, and one of 6 color palettes each consisting of 16 colors numbered 0 through 15. The parameter c ( 0 through 15) represents an initial color. A 257 by 257 square is drawn in the color numbered c. Label the 4 corner colors c1, c2, c3 and c4 (at the initial stage they will all be c). then a new color is determined by the formula a + (c1+c2+c3+c4)/b mod 16 and a horizontal and vertical line that divide the original square into 4 new squares are drawn in the new color. The procedure is repeated recursively until all the pixels are filled in. Read more about "Persian" Recursians, enter the parameters and click on Draw rugs, and download a Windows Program that makes "Persian" rugs, at http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/aburns/persian/persian.htm. --- Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)Jun 01, 2007
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"Fractal Scene I," by Anne M. Burns"Mathscapes" are created using a variety of mathematical formulas. The clouds and plant life are generated using fractal methods. The mountains are created using trigonometric sums with randomly generated coefficients; then, using 3-D transformation, they are projected onto the computer screen. Value and color are functions of the dot product of the normal to the surface with a specified light vector. See the Gallery of "Mathscapes and find citations for my articles on modeling trees, plants and mountains, and on "blending and dithering," at http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/aburns/gallery/gallery.htm. --- Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)Jun 01, 2007
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"Imaginary Garden," by Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, NY)"Mathscapes" are created using a variety of mathematical formulas. The clouds and plant life are generated using fractal methods. The mountains are created using trigonometric sums with randomly generated coefficients; then, using 3-D transformation, they are projected onto the computer screen. Value and color are functions of the dot product of the normal to the surface with a specified light vector. See the Gallery of Mathscapes and find citations for my articles on modeling trees, plants and mountains, and on "blending and dithering" at http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/aburns/gallery/gallery.htm. --- Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)Jun 01, 2007
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"Lilacs--an Imaginary Inflorescence," by Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)"Inflorescence" is the arrangement of flowers, or the mode of flowering, on a plant--sometimes simple and easily distinguishable, sometimes very complex. "Lilacs" is an example of an imaginary inflorescence that I have created using computer graphics techniques. Two Java applets allow users to see and draw purely imaginary inflorescences at various stages using the recursive (repeatedly applied) functions. Download the code from either applet, and see photographs of real inflorescences several imaginary inflorescences, at http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/aburns/inflores/inflores.htm. --- Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)Jun 01, 2007
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"Fractal Scene II," by Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)"Mathscapes" are created using a variety of mathematical formulas. The clouds and plant life are generated using fractal methods. The mountains are created using trigonometric sums with randomly generated coefficients; then, using 3-D transformation, they are projected onto the computer screen. Value and color are functions of the dot product of the normal to the surface with a specified light vector. See the Gallery of "Mathscapes and find citations for my articles on modeling trees, plants and mountains, and on "blending and dithering," at http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/aburns/gallery/gallery.htm. --- Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)Jun 01, 2007
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"Eights," by George W. Hart (www.georgehart.com)This six-inch diameter paper sculpture is made of sixty identically shaped parts. Parts of any one color form a type of tetrahedron, and there are five such, deeply interlocked. No glue is used; they parts just hook into each other. I call this type of design "modular kirigami". It took me about four hours to assemble after several hours of false starts and figuring out how to do it. I generated a computer-rendered view down a five-fold axis. The "8"-shaped parts each link with many others. So they could not be made as single pieces of paper unless they were glued or taped together after being linked. But I wanted to be a purist and use no glue or tape, so I designed the parts as two overlapping "3"-shaped pieces.

--- George W. Hart (www.georgehart.com)
May 17, 2007
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"Star Corona," by George W. Hart (www.georgehart.com)This 8-inch, diameter, one-of-a-kind, acrylic sculpture consists of an inner red star surrounded by a yellow corona. It is designed to hang and the two components do not touch each other. The star has twelve large 5-sided spikes and twenty smaller 3-sided spikes, all assembled from sixty identical angular components. The corona is assembled from twenty identical curved components, which give the effect of swirling motion. If you look straight down on a spike, you see that arms from five of the yellow parts combine to make a circle around the spike. Both components are based on stellations of the icosahedron. The outer corona is based on the first stellation and the inner star shape is based on number 53 in the list by Coxeter et al. To understand it well, make a paper model from the instructions on my website.

--- George W. Hart (www.georgehart.com)
May 17, 2007
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"The Susurrus of the Sea," by George W. Hart (www.georgehart.com)Soft waves, suggestive of both sky and water, travel around the globe along six different criss-crossing equators. The susurrus (murmur) of the sea is suggested as a sense of harmony in this sphere. Technically difficult, the 60 transparent blue acrylic plastic components had to be made very precisely to fit together. Heat-formed, the components were formed and assembled on special jigs which imparted the proper dimensions and angles. Mathematically, the blue spirals are helixes that follow the edges of an icosidodecahedron. This is a polyhedron that was known to the ancient Greeks, but the oldest known drawing of it is by Leonardo da Vinci. Formally constructed of triangles and pentagons (which show up here as the openings) it can also be seen as an arrangement of six equatorial regular decagons. Each equator makes ten twists in a complete path, crossing the other five equators at two opposite points. If one "walks along" a dark blue edge, making right-angle turns where edges meet, one traces a large five-pointed star before returning to one’s starting point.

--- George W. Hart (www.georgehart.com)
May 17, 2007
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"Three Link Chain," by Jarke J. van Wijk (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven). Image courtesy of Jarke J. van Wijk.This knot consists of three similar links, and is threefold-symmetric. The surface shown is a Seifert surface, an orientable surface bounded by the links. Considering only the links, it is hard to imagine that such a surface does exist. However, in the 1930's, the German mathematician Herbert Seifert presented an algorithm to find such surfaces for any knot or link. This image was made with a tool called SeifertView.

--- Jarke J. van Wijk
Mar 13, 2007
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"Borromean Rings," by Jarke J. van Wijk (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven). Image courtesy of Jarke J. van Wijk.The Borromean Rings consist of three links. Take one link away and the other links fall apart, but together they are inseparable. Because of this, they are popular as a symbol for strength in unity. Here they are shown from an unusual point of view, and also a Seifert surface is shown. This is an orientable surface, bounded by the links. This image was made with a tool called SeifertView.

--- Jarke J. van Wijk
Mar 13, 2007
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"(1,3,5) Pretzel Knot," by Jarke J. van Wijk (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven). Image courtesy of Jarke J. van Wijk.The yellow tube is a (1, 3, 5) pretzel knot. Such a pretzel knot or link consists of a sequence of angles, where each tangle has a number of twists. The brown surface is a Seifert surface: an orientable surface bounded by the knot. Here the surface is easy to understand; for arbitrary knots such surfaces often have strange and difficult shapes. However, for any knot or link such surfaces can be found, as shown by Herbert Seifert in the 1930's. This image was made with a tool called SeifertView.

--- Jarke J. van Wijk
Mar 13, 2007
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"Bonhomme de Neige (Snowman)," by Sylvie GalletSylvie Gallet is a mathematics professor at a secondary school near Paris. With 20 years of experience in writing fractal formulas and algorithms, she is an expert in the handling of color gradients. In fact, Sylvie avoids complex and postprocessed images, in preference to designs with little elaboration, whose value resides in the intelligent and creative use of color. "Bonhomme de Neige" is a good example of Sylvie's art. It is a conceptually simple image, but the careful use of color transports us immediately to an image of Christmas and winter countryside. Few fractal artists are capable of transmitting such direct visions and sensations.Mar 07, 2007
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"Encore," by Paul DecellePaul DeCelle is a mechanical engineer in Michigan (USA). His image for this exhibition is a very handsome composition based on a portion of the Mandelbrot set (magnified approximately 10 to the 13th times). The artist has used techniques known for more than 10 years, but can still surprise the viewer by its majesty, especially in large-scale reproductions. If we imagine the Mandelbrot set as an extensive mountain range, the composition relies on two basic principles. The "Slope" algorithm assigns the same color to those regions with the same height, like in a topographical map. The "Lighting" algorithm colors towards white those regions of the surface illuminated by an imaginary sun sitting on the horizon, while the shadows partially obscure the surface. The result is a three-dimensional effect that enriches and enhances the detail in the original fractal.Mar 07, 2007
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