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Math ImageryThe connection between mathematics and art goes back thousands of years. Mathematics has been used in the design of Gothic cathedrals, Rose windows, oriental rugs, mosaics and tilings. Geometric forms were fundamental to the cubists and many abstract expressionists, and award-winning sculptors have used topology as the basis for their pieces. Dutch artist M.C. Escher represented infinity, Möbius bands, tessellations, deformations, reflections, Platonic solids, spirals, symmetry, and the hyperbolic plane in his works.

Mathematicians and artists continue to create stunning works in all media and to explore the visualization of mathematics--origami, computer-generated landscapes, tesselations, fractals, anamorphic art, and more.

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"Manifold II (in tree) in memory of Bill Thurston," by Daina Taimina (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY), photo © Daina TaiminaInspired by William Thurston's paper creations back in the 1960s, I thought if something can be made out of paper, it can also be crocheted, so I made my first crocheted hyperbolic planes in June 1997 by increasing stitches in constant ratio---after every two stitches I did an increase by one stitch. The number of stitches in each row grew exponentially, so after finishing my first small, very ruffled one I realized that to explore the hyperbolic plane I have to change the ratio of increase. For classroom use the best is to use the ratio 12:13---it means to increase one stitch after every 12 single crochet stitches. See more crochet examples on my blog, Daina Taimina Fiber Sculptures --- Daina Taimina (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)Jun 21, 2013
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Autumn (Thanksgiving), by Daina Taimina (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY), photo @Daina Taimina44x44x29 cm, 2006-2010, wool, silk

Inspired by William Thurston's paper creations back in the 1960s, I thought if something can be made out of paper, it can also be crocheted, so I made my first crocheted hyperbolic planes in June 1997 by increasing stitches in constant ratio---after every two stitches I did an increase by one stitch. The number of stitches in each row grew exponentially, so after finishing my first small, very ruffled one I realized that to explore the hyperbolic plane I have to change the ratio of increase. For classroom use the best is to use the ratio 12:13---it means to increase one stitch after every 12 single crochet stitches. See more crochet examples on my blog, Daina Taimina Fiber Sculptures --- Daina Taimina (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)
Jun 21, 2013
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"Seven Shades of Purple," by Daina Taimina (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY), photo © Daina TaiminaInspired by William Thurston's paper creations back in the 1960s, I thought if something can be made out of paper, it can also be crocheted, so I made my first crocheted hyperbolic planes in June 1997 by increasing stitches in constant ratio---after every two stitches I did an increase by one stitch. The number of stitches in each row grew exponentially, so after finishing my first small, very ruffled one I realized that to explore the hyperbolic plane I have to change the ratio of increase. For classroom use the best is to use the ratio 12:13---it means to increase one stitch after every 12 single crochet stitches. See more crochet examples on my blog, Daina Taimina Fiber Sculptures --- Daina Taimina (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)Jun 21, 2013
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"Turtles with Local Symmetry," Frank A. Farris, Santa Clara University, CAInk jet on paper, 2012.

There is no mirror symmetry in this image, only 6-fold rotational symmetry. And yet our eye cannot help seeing symmetry in the turtle shapes. This "local symmetry" is the topic of an article, "Local symmetry in wallpaper," in preparation. --- Frank A. Farris
Jun 21, 2013
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"A cmm Pattern from Peppers on a Cutting Board," by Frank A. Farris, Santa Clara University, CAInk jet on paper.

The bright oranges in this cmm pattern come from a photograph of assorted chopped peppers, with collard greens and the glint of the knife as nice contrasts. --- Frank A. Farris
Jun 21, 2013
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"Tiffany Glass from a Mountain Gentian and its Negative," by Frank A. Farris, Santa Clara University, CAInk jet on paper, 2012.

Using a composite photograph of a mountain gentian juxtaposed with its negative to produce an intense contrast of purple with the original green, I used just the right waves to make wallpaper with horizontal mirrors, vertical glides, and 2-fold rotational symmetry. In the notation of the International Union of Crystallographers, the symmetry group of this pattern is pmg, but if we allow color-swapping transformations as generalized symmetries, the larger group is cmm, so this pattern type is called cmm/pmg. The "Seeing Symmetry" virtual exhibition at includes more works and details. --- Frank A. Farris
Jun 21, 2013
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"Turtle, opus 269," by Robert J. LangOne uncut square of Origamido paper, 5", composed 1992, folded 2002

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
thataway-lang.jpg
"Thataway, opus 570," by Robert J. LangOne uncut dollar, 2", composed and folded 2010

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
rattlesnake539-lang.jpg
"Rattlesnake, opus 539," by Robert J. LangOne uncut rectangle of Thai unryu paper, 8", composed and folded 2008

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
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"QuezadaPot13, opus 590," by Robert J. LangOne uncut triskadecagon of Mexican yucca paper, 8", composed and folded 2009

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
prayingmantis416-lang.jpg
"Praying Mantis, opus 416," by Robert J. LangOne uncut square of paper, 4", composed and folded 2002

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
locust-lang.jpg
"Locust," by Robert J. LangOne uncut square of Origamido paper, 3", composed and folded 2004

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
grizzly433-lang.jpg
"Grizzly Bear, opus 433," by Robert J. LangOne uncut square of Korean hanji, 8", composed 2002, folded 2003

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
cpsnow612-lang.jpg
"C. P. Snow, opus 612," by Robert J. LangOne uncut square of Korean hanji, 10", composed and folded 2009

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
bassethound212-lang.jpg
"Basset Hound, opus 212," by Robert J. LangOne uncut square of kozo paper with lnclusions, 8", composed 1988, folded 2012

The intersections between origami, mathematics, and science occur at many levels and include many fields of the latter. Origami, like music, also permits both composition and performance as expressions of the art. Over the past 40 years, I have developed nearly 600 original origami compositions. About a quarter of these have been published with folding instructions, which, in origami, serve the same purpose that a musical score does: it provides a guide to the performer (in origami, the folder) while allowing the performer to express his or her own personality through interpretation and variation. --- Robert J. Lang
May 22, 2013
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