In Canon 5 the second voice follows one measure behind, just asin Canon 2, but it is shifted up in pitch by a perfect fifth. In Bach's encryption of this canon, theshift is indicated by the two clefs in the lower staff.
The first voice is readusing the bass clef, the second with the same notes but using the altoclef (centered on middle C). A modified ``royal theme'' plays in the top staff,in harmony with the two lower voices.
The mathematical analogue of a canon where Voice 2 starts one measureafter Voice 1 and is shifted up a perfect fifth is a pair of functions f(t) and g(t)with
g(t) = f(t-1) +H,
if the tunit is a measure, and where H is the distance along the pitch axis representing ``up one fifth''. This canon has another unusual feature which is not duplicated in thegraphs:It does not recycle periodically, but each successive run-through is modulatedupward in pitch by a whole step.