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in the Popular Press

"Scientists Prove Kansas Flatter than a Pancake," by Mark Fonstad, WilliamPugatch and Brandon Vogt. *Annalsof Improbable Research*, May-June 2003.

For those unfamilar with *The Annals of Improbable Research*---otherwiseknown as AIR---the science humor magazine publishes "research that makes peopleLAUGH, then makes them THINK." Mathematics is featured prominently in thisimprobable research article: "Barring the acquisition of either a Kansas-sizedpancake or a pancake-sized Kansas, mathematical techniques are needed to do aproper comparison. One common method of quantifying `flatness' in geodesy isthe `flattening' ratio. The length of an ellipse's (or arc's) semi-major axis*a* is compared with its measured semi-minor axis *b* using theformula for flattening, *f = (a - b) / a*. A perfectly flat surface willhave a flattening *f* of one, whereas an ellipsoid with equal axis lengthswill have no flattening, and *f* will equal zero." (The researchersexplain the methodology that proves that Kansas is flatter than a pancake.)

See also: "The Flapjack State," in the Primary Sources column of *TheAtlantic Monthly*, December 2003.

*--- Annette Emerson*