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Journal of the American Mathematical Society

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ISSN 1088-6834 (online) ISSN 0894-0347 (print)

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Mean growth of Koenigs eigenfunctions
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by Paul S. Bourdon and Joel H. Shapiro PDF
J. Amer. Math. Soc. 10 (1997), 299-325 Request permission


In 1884, G. Koenigs solved Schroeder’s functional equation \begin{equation*} f\circ \phi = \lambda f \end{equation*} in the following context: $\phi$ is a given holomorphic function mapping the open unit disk $U$ into itself and fixing a point $a\in U$, $f$ is holomorphic on $U$, and $\lambda$ is a complex scalar. Koenigs showed that if $0 < |\phi ’(a)| < 1$, then Schroeder’s equation for $\phi$ has a unique holomorphic solution $\sigma$ satisfying \begin{equation*} \sigma \circ \phi = \phi ’(a) \sigma \qquad \text {and}\qquad \sigma ’(0) = 1; \end{equation*} moreover, he showed that the only other solutions are the obvious ones given by constant multiples of powers of $\sigma$. We call $\sigma$ the Koenigs eigenfunction of $\phi$. Motivated by fundamental issues in operator theory and function theory, we seek to understand the growth of integral means of Koenigs eigenfunctions. For $0 < p < \infty$, we prove a sufficient condition for the Koenigs eigenfunction of $\phi$ to belong to the Hardy space $H^p$ and show that the condition is necessary when $\phi$ is analytic on the closed disk. For many mappings $\phi$ the condition may be expressed as a relationship between $\phi ’(a)$ and derivatives of $\phi$ at points on $\partial U$ that are fixed by some iterate of $\phi$. Our work depends upon a formula we establish for the essential spectral radius of any composition operator on the Hardy space $H^p$.
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Additional Information
  • Paul S. Bourdon
  • Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia 24450
  • Email:
  • Joel H. Shapiro
  • Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824
  • Email:
  • Received by editor(s): January 22, 1996
  • Received by editor(s) in revised form: June 19, 1996
  • Additional Notes: The first author was supported in part by NSF grant DMS-9401206.
    The second author was supported in part by NSF grant DMS-9424417
  • © Copyright 1997 American Mathematical Society
  • Journal: J. Amer. Math. Soc. 10 (1997), 299-325
  • MSC (1991): Primary 30D05, 47B38
  • DOI:
  • MathSciNet review: 1401457