## An application of Ramsey’s Theorem to the Banach Contraction Principle

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- by James Merryfield, Bruce Rothschild and James D. Stein Jr.
- Proc. Amer. Math. Soc.
**130**(2002), 927-933 - DOI: https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9939-01-06169-X
- Published electronically: August 28, 2001
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## Abstract:

One of the most fundamental fixed-point theorems is Banach’s Contraction Principle, of which the following conjecture is a generalization.**Generalized Banach Contraction Conjecture**(GBCC).

*Let $T$ be a self-map of a complete metric space $(X,d)$, and let $0<M<1$. Let $J$ be a positive integer. Assume that for each pair $x,y\in X$, $\min \{d(T^kx, T^ky):1\le k\le J\}\le M d(x,y)$. Then $T$ has a fixed point.*Unlike Banach’s original theorem (the case $J=1$), the above hypothesis does not compel $T$ to be continuous. In this paper we use Ramsey’s Theorem from combinatorics to establish the GBCC for arbitrary $J$ in the case when $T$ is assumed to be continuous, and also derive a result which enables us to prove the GBCC when $J=3$ without the assumption of continuity; it is known that the case $J=3$ includes instances where $T$ is not continuous.

## References

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## Bibliographic Information

**James Merryfield**- Affiliation: Long Beach Polytechnic High School, 1600 Atlantic Ave., Long Beach, California 90813
- Address at time of publication: Department of Mathematics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720
- Email: kmerry@csulb.edu
**Bruce Rothschild**- Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, University of California at Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, California 90024
- Email: blr@math.ucla.edu
**James D. Stein Jr.**- Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, California State University at Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, California 90840
- Email: jimstein@csulb.edu
- Received by editor(s): March 3, 2000
- Received by editor(s) in revised form: May 10, 2000, July 14, 2000, and September 25, 2000
- Published electronically: August 28, 2001
- Communicated by: John R. Stembridge
- © Copyright 2001 American Mathematical Society
- Journal: Proc. Amer. Math. Soc.
**130**(2002), 927-933 - MSC (2000): Primary 05C55, 47H10
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9939-01-06169-X
- MathSciNet review: 1873763