## Approximation properties on invariant measure and Oseledec splitting in non-uniformly hyperbolic systems

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- by Chao Liang, Geng Liu and Wenxiang Sun PDF
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**361**(2009), 1543-1579 Request permission

## Abstract:

We prove that each invariant measure in a non-uniformly hyperbolic system can be approximated by atomic measures on hyperbolic periodic orbits. This contributes to our main result that the mean angle (Definition 1.10), independence number (Definition 1.6) and Oseledec splitting for an ergodic hyperbolic measure with simple spectrum can be approximated by those for atomic measures on hyperbolic periodic orbits, respectively. Combining this result with the approximation property of Lyapunov exponents by Wang and Sun, 2005 (Theorem 1.9), we strengthen Katok’s closing lemma (1980) by presenting more extensive information not only about the state system but also its linearization.

In the present paper, we also study an ergodic theorem and a variational principle for mean angle, independence number and Liao’s style number (Definition 1.3) which are bases for discussing the approximation properties in the main result.

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## Additional Information

**Chao Liang**- Affiliation: LMAM, School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China – and – Applied Mathematical Department, The Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, People’s Republic of China
- Email: Chaol@math.pku.edu.cn, Chaol@cufe.edu.cn
**Geng Liu**- Affiliation: LMAM, School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China – and – China Institute of Advanced Study, The Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, People’s Republic of China
- Email: yaseplay@gmail.com
**Wenxiang Sun**- Affiliation: LMAM, School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China
- MR Author ID: 315192
- Email: sunwx@math.pku.edu.cn
- Received by editor(s): March 2, 2007
- Published electronically: October 21, 2008
- Additional Notes: The first and second authors were supported by NNSFC(# 10671006)

The third author was supported by NNSFC (# 10231020, # 10671006), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(# 2006CB805900) and the Doctoral Education Foundation of China - © Copyright 2008
American Mathematical Society

The copyright for this article reverts to public domain 28 years after publication. - Journal: Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.
**361**(2009), 1543-1579 - MSC (2000): Primary 37C40, 37D25, 37H15, 37A35
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9947-08-04630-8
- MathSciNet review: 2457408