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Transactions of the American Mathematical Society

Published by the American Mathematical Society since 1900, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society is devoted to longer research articles in all areas of pure and applied mathematics.

ISSN 1088-6850 (online) ISSN 0002-9947 (print)

The 2020 MCQ for Transactions of the American Mathematical Society is 1.48.

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Convergence of graphs with intermediate density
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by Péter E. Frenkel PDF
Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 370 (2018), 3363-3404 Request permission


We propose a notion of graph convergence that interpolates between the Benjamini–Schramm convergence of bounded degree graphs and the dense graph convergence developed by László Lovász and his coauthors. We prove that spectra of graphs, and also some important graph parameters such as numbers of colorings or matchings, behave well in convergent graph sequences. Special attention is given to graph sequences of large essential girth, for which asymptotics of coloring numbers are explicitly calculated. We also treat numbers of matchings in approximately regular graphs.

We introduce tentative limit objects that we call graphonings because they are common generalizations of graphons and graphings. Special forms of these, called Hausdorff and Euclidean graphonings, involve geometric measure theory. We construct Euclidean graphonings that provide limits of hypercubes and of finite projective planes, and, more generally, of a wide class of regular sequences of large essential girth. For any convergent sequence of large essential girth, we construct weaker limit objects: an involution invariant probability measure on the sub-Markov space of consistent measure sequences (this is unique), or an acyclic reversible sub-Markov kernel on a probability space (non-unique). We also pose some open problems.

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Additional Information
  • Péter E. Frenkel
  • Affiliation: Faculty of Science, Institute of Mathematics, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Hungary, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C – and – Alfréd Rényi Institute of Mathematics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1053 Budapest, Hungary Reáltanoda u. 13-15. ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2672-8772
  • MR Author ID: 623969
  • Email:
  • Received by editor(s): March 19, 2016
  • Received by editor(s) in revised form: July 31, 2016
  • Published electronically: December 1, 2017
  • Additional Notes: This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 648017), from the MTA Rényi Lendület Groups and Graphs research group, and from the Hungariain National Research, Development and Innovation Office – NKFIH, OTKA grants no. K104206 and K109684.
  • © Copyright 2017 American Mathematical Society
  • Journal: Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 370 (2018), 3363-3404
  • MSC (2010): Primary 05C15, 05C50, 05C60, 05C99, 05C31; Secondary 05C81, 05C80, 05C76, 05C70, 05C63
  • DOI:
  • MathSciNet review: 3766852