Math ImageryThe connection between mathematics and art goes back thousands of years. Mathematics has been used in the design of Gothic cathedrals, Rose windows, oriental rugs, mosaics and tilings. Geometric forms were fundamental to the cubists and many abstract expressionists, and award-winning sculptors have used topology as the basis for their pieces. Dutch artist M.C. Escher represented infinity, Möbius bands, tessellations, deformations, reflections, Platonic solids, spirals, symmetry, and the hyperbolic plane in his works.

Mathematicians and artists continue to create stunning works in all media and to explore the visualization of mathematics--origami, computer-generated landscapes, tesselations, fractals, anamorphic art, and more.

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"Recursive Figure-8 Knot" by Carlo Sequin, University of California, Berkeley1672 viewsIn some depictions of a mathematical knot, some of the meshes formed between the criss-crossing strands resemble the overall outline shape of the whole knot. It is then possible to fit a reduced copy of the knot into every one of these meshes and reconnect the strands so as to obtain again a mathematical knot consisting of a single closed strand. Then this process can be continued recursively resulting in a self-similar pattern. This general process was applied to the 4-crossing Figure-8 knot. But rather than performing this process in a drawing plane as outlined above, subsequent generations of reduced knot instances were placed in planes that are roughly perpendicular to one another, resulting in a truly 3-dimensional sculpture. --- Carlo Sequin
"Fractal Scene I," by Anne M. Burns1669 views"Mathscapes" are created using a variety of mathematical formulas. The clouds and plant life are generated using fractal methods. The mountains are created using trigonometric sums with randomly generated coefficients; then, using 3-D transformation, they are projected onto the computer screen. Value and color are functions of the dot product of the normal to the surface with a specified light vector. See the Gallery of "Mathscapes and find citations for my articles on modeling trees, plants and mountains, and on "blending and dithering," at --- Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)
Hamid Naderi Yeganeh, "Heart" (November 2014)1649 viewsThis image contains a heart-like figure. It shows 601 line segments. For each i=1, 2, 3, .... , 601 the endpoints of the i-th line segment are:
(sin(10π(i+699)/2000), cos(8π(i+699)/2000))
(sin(12π(i+699)/2000), cos(10π(i+699)/2000)).

I created this image by running my program. --- Hamid Naderi Yeganeh
"Arabic Icosahedron" by Carlo Sequin, University of California, Berkeley1648 viewsMoorish patterns found in the Alhambra often depict lattices of interlocking knots. Here such a pattern composed of interlocking trefoil knots has been wrapped around an icosahedron. Each of the 20 faces is replaced with a trefoil knot, which interlocks along the triangle edges with three adjacent trefoils. The exact nature of the linking between adjacent trefoils leaves some freedom to the designer: In the simplest case two adjacent trefoils interlock with just one lobe each. In the "Arabic Icosahedron" they are linked with two lobes each, resulting in a much tighter meshing. --- Carlo Sequin
"20 circles in an icosahedron pattern" by Bradford Hansen-Smith1645 viewsAn icosahedron is a solid with 20 faces. This solid has hexagons on its surface with pentagonal indentations. The symbol of the circle is used as metaphor for nothing and for everything, and endless parts in-between. Folding circles appears to have little history: Somewhere in the history of origami lies the circle, unrecognized and discarded in favor of the square; Buckminster Fuller also folded the circle, with informational intent. Fuller is the inspiration for my own exploration into geometry and provided the seed for folding and joining circles-9" paper plates.

--Bradford Hansen-Smith, Wholemovement
"Persian Rug (Recursian I)," by Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)1630 viewsAn applet uses a recursive (repeatedly applied) procedure to make designs that resemble Persian rugs. You may choose 3 parameters a, b and c, and one of 6 color palettes each consisting of 16 colors numbered 0 through 15. The parameter c ( 0 through 15) represents an initial color. A 257 by 257 square is drawn in the color numbered c. Label the 4 corner colors c1, c2, c3 and c4 (at the initial stage they will all be c). then a new color is determined by the formula a + (c1+c2+c3+c4)/b mod 16 and a horizontal and vertical line that divide the original square into 4 new squares are drawn in the new color. The procedure is repeated recursively until all the pixels are filled in. Read more about "Persian" Recursians, enter the parameters and click on Draw rugs, and download a Windows Program that makes "Persian" rugs, at --- Anne M. Burns (Long Island University, Brookville, NY)
"Two Squares (2006)," by Edmund Harriss (University of Leicester)1629 viewsPrinted on Canvas 36" x 36". This is based on the Ammann-Beenker Tiling. Along with Ammann Squares this work explores the extension of the work of Raymond Brownell ( to more complicated geometry. The Ammann-Beenker tiling is the eight-fold sibling of the more famous, five-fold Penrose rhomb tiling. It was discovered independently by R. Ammann and F. Beenker. Like the Penrose tiling, the Ammann-Beenker can be constructed by two particular methods. The first method is uses the substitution rule, and the second method is to construct the tiling as a planar slice of a four dimensional lattice (in much the same way that a computer draws a line using the pixels of its screen) and then project this to the plane.
See more information at

--- Edmund Harriss
"NeuralNet," by Mike Field (University of Houston)1627 views"NeuralNet" is is part of the generating tile of a planar repeating pattern of type pgg. Repeating patterns of this type have no reflection symmetries but do have many glide reflection symmetries as well as translational symmetries and two-fold centers of rotation. The absence of reflectional symmetries often leads to very fluid and dynamic patterns. The coloring reflects the density of the invariant measure. --- Mike Field
"D-260" Acrylic on paper1624 viewsThis painting has a grid over the ground of the painting which follows the alternating sequence of opaque color, and open spaces. The underlaying image is based on the number 11 and the toroid form also alternates with light "spokes" and darker "spokes." A circular gradation of color radiates within the darker blue color.
8-torus.jpg1620 views"The 8-Crossing Torus Knot T(4,3)," by Dror Bar-Natan (University of Toronto, Canada)

This is an example of a torus knot. A torus is a surface best described as a doughnut. A torus knot can be thought of as looping around and through the torus. The symbol T(4,3) means that the string making the knot loops through the hole of the torus 4 times, making 3 revolutions. This knot is drawn with TubePlot.

--- Dror Bar-Natan
"2 Circles in a bi-pentagon pattern," by Bradford Hansen-Smith1601 viewsThe symbol of the circle is used as metaphor for nothing and for everything, and endless parts in-between. Folding circles appears to have little history: Somewhere in the history of origami lies the circle, unrecognized and discarded in favor of the square; Buckminster Fuller also folded the circle, with informational intent. Fuller is the inspiration for my own exploration into geometry and provided the seed for folding and joining circles-9" paper plates.

-- Bradford Hansen-Smith, Wholemovement
"P-357" Acrylic on canvas1597 viewsThere are 11 petal forms in center of this painting. The grid or plaid in the background follows a number sequence of 3 while there are 22 circles interlocking around the edge of the painting. There are also soft concentric circles which radiate from the center of the painting.
"Snowflake Model 13," by David Griffeath (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Janko Gravner (University of California, Davis)1590 viewsIn nature roughly a quintillion molecules make up every crystal that falls to earth, with the shape dictated by temperature, humidity and other local conditions. How such a seemingly random process produces snowflakes that are at once geometrically simple and incredibly intricate has captivated scientists since the early 1600s. Now we have simulated their 3D growth using a computational model that faithfully emulates both the basic shapes and the fine details and markings of the full range of observed forms. Our model is driven by diffusion-limited attachment of micron-scale blocks of ice; read about the underlying mathematics at --- David Griffeath
Circle 11589 viewsComputers make it possible for me to "see" the beauty of mathematics. This image and all of the Circle Pictures are made by iterating systems of Mobius Transformations.
"Sa'odat (Happiness)," by Nathan Voirol (2007)1586 viewsHand-made ceramic tile, 15" diameter. "Islamic star pattern based on a tessellation of 18 and 12 pointed stars in a hexagonal repeat. My primary artistic interest is in designing repeatable patterns--I particularly enjoy creating geometric star and floral designs, which stem from my fascination with Islamic art." --- Nathan Voirol, CAD Drafter / Freelance Artist, Santa Barbara, CA
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American Mathematical Society