## Tight lower bounds for the size of epsilon-nets

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- by János Pach and Gábor Tardos
- J. Amer. Math. Soc.
**26**(2013), 645-658 - DOI: https://doi.org/10.1090/S0894-0347-2012-00759-0
- Published electronically: November 7, 2012

## Abstract:

According to a well known theorem of Haussler and Welzl (1987), any range space of bounded VC-dimension admits an $\varepsilon$-net of size $O\!\left (\frac {1}{\varepsilon }\log \frac 1{\varepsilon }\right )$. Using probabilistic techniques, Pach and Woeginger (1990) showed that there exist range spaces of VC-dimension 2, for which the above bound is sharp. The only known range spaces of small VC-dimension, in which the ranges are geometric objects in some Euclidean space and the size of the smallest $\varepsilon$-nets is superlinear in $\frac 1{\varepsilon }$, were found by Alon (2010). In his examples, every $\varepsilon$-net is of size $\Omega \left (\frac {1}{\varepsilon }g(\frac {1}{\varepsilon })\right )$, where $g$ is an extremely slowly growing function, related to the inverse Ackermann function.

We show that there exist geometrically defined range spaces, already of VC-dimension $2$, in which the size of the smallest $\varepsilon$-nets is $\Omega \left (\frac {1}{\varepsilon }\log \frac {1}{\varepsilon }\right )$. We also construct range spaces induced by axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, in which the size of the smallest $\varepsilon$-nets is $\Omega \left (\frac {1}{\varepsilon }\log \log \frac {1}{\varepsilon }\right )$. By a theorem of Aronov, Ezra, and Sharir (2010), this bound is tight.

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## Bibliographic Information

**János Pach**- Affiliation: EPFL, Station 8, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland – and – Hungarian Academy of Science, Rényi Institute, P. O. Box 127, Budapest, 1364 Hungary
- Email: pach@cims.nyu.edu
**Gábor Tardos**- Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 – and – Hungarian Academy of Science, Rényi Institute, P. O. Box 127, Budapest, 1364 Hungary
- Email: tardos@cs.sfu.edu
- Received by editor(s): April 26, 2011
- Received by editor(s) in revised form: January 7, 2012, and July 30, 2012
- Published electronically: November 7, 2012
- Additional Notes: The first author was supported by Hungarian Science Foundation EuroGIGA grant OTKA NN-102029, by Swiss National Science Foundation grant 200021-125287/1, and by NSF grant CCF-08-30272

The second author was supported by NSERC grant 329527, OTKA grants T-046234, AT-048826, and NK-62321, and by the Bernoulli Center at EPFL - © Copyright 2012 Pach and Tardos
- Journal: J. Amer. Math. Soc.
**26**(2013), 645-658 - MSC (2010): Primary 52C10; Secondary 05D15
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1090/S0894-0347-2012-00759-0
- MathSciNet review: 3037784