Focal sets and real hypersurfaces in complex projective space

Authors:
Thomas E. Cecil and Patrick J. Ryan

Journal:
Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. **269** (1982), 481-499

MSC:
Primary 53C40; Secondary 53C15

DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9947-1982-0637703-3

MathSciNet review:
637703

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Abstract | References | Similar Articles | Additional Information

Abstract: Let $M$ be a real submanifold of $C{P^m}$, and let $J$ denote the complex structure. We begin by finding a formula for the location of the focal points of $M$ in terms of its second fundamental form. This takes a particularly tractable form when $M$ is a complex submanifold or a real hypersurface on which $J\xi$ is a principal vector for each unit normal $\xi$ to $M$. The rank of the focal map onto a sheet of the focal set of $M$ is also computed in terms of the second fundamental form. In the case of a real hypersurface on which $J\xi$ is principal with corresponding principal curvature $\mu$, if the map onto a sheet of the focal set corresponding to $\mu$ has constant rank, then that sheet is a *complex* submanifold over which $M$ is a tube of constant radius (Theorem 1). The other sheets of the focal set of such a hypersurface are given a real manifold structure in Theorem 2. These results are then employed as major tools in obtaining two classifications of real hypersurfaces in $C{P^m}$. First, there are no totally umbilic real hypersurfaces in $C{P^m}$, but we show: Theorem 3. *Let* $M$ *be a connected real hypersurface in* $C{P^m}$, $m \geqslant 3$, *with at most two distinct principal curvatures at each point. Then* $M$ *is an open subset of a geodesic hypersphere*. Secondly, we show that there are no Einstein real hypersurfaces in $C{P^m}$ and characterize the geodesic hyperspheres and two other classes of hypersurfaces in terms of a slightly less stringent requirement on the Ricci tensor in Theorem 4.

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Keywords:
Focal sets,
real hypersurfaces in complex projective space,
umbilic hypersurfaces,
Einstein hypersurfaces

Article copyright:
© Copyright 1982
American Mathematical Society