On nonlinear delay differential equations

Author:
A. Iserles

Journal:
Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. **344** (1994), 441-477

MSC:
Primary 34K05; Secondary 34K20, 34K25

DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9947-1994-1225574-4

MathSciNet review:
1225574

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Abstract: We examine qualitative behaviour of delay differential equations of the form \[ y\prime (t) = h(y(t),\;y(qt)),\quad y(0) = {y_0},\] where *h* is a given function and $q > 0$. We commence by investigating existence of periodic solutions in the case of $h(u,v) = f(u) + p(v)$, where *f* is an analytic function and *p* a polynomial. In that case we prove that, unless *q* is a rational number of a fairly simple form, no nonconstant periodic solutions exist. In particular, in the special case when *f* is a linear function, we rule out periodicity except for the case when $q = 1/\deg p$. If, in addition, *p* is a quadratic or a quartic, we show that this result is the best possible and that a nonconstant periodic solution exists for $q = \frac {1}{2}$ or $\frac {1}{4}$, respectively. Provided that *g* is a bivariate polynomial, we investigate solutions of the delay differential equation by expanding them into Dirichlet series. Coefficients and arguments of these series are derived by means of a recurrence relation and their index set is isomorphic to a subset of planar graphs. Convergence results for these Dirichlet series rely heavily upon the derivation of generating functions of such graphs, counted with respect to certain recursively-defined functionals. We prove existence and convergence of Dirichlet series under different general conditions, thereby deducing much useful information about global behaviour of the solution.

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Article copyright:
© Copyright 1994
American Mathematical Society