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Transactions of the American Mathematical Society

Published by the American Mathematical Society since 1900, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society is devoted to longer research articles in all areas of pure and applied mathematics.

ISSN 1088-6850 (online) ISSN 0002-9947 (print)

The 2020 MCQ for Transactions of the American Mathematical Society is 1.48.

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Surface superconductivity in $3$ dimensions
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by Xing-Bin Pan PDF
Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 356 (2004), 3899-3937 Request permission


We study the Ginzburg-Landau system for a superconductor occupying a $3$-dimensional bounded domain, and improve the estimate of the upper critical field $H_{C_{3}}$ obtained by K. Lu and X. Pan in J. Diff. Eqns., 168 (2000), 386-452. We also analyze the behavior of the order parameters. We show that, under an applied magnetic field lying below and not far from $H_{C_{3}}$, order parameters concentrate in a vicinity of a sheath of the surface that is tangential to the applied field, and exponentially decay both in the normal and tangential directions away from the sheath in the $L^{2}$ sense. As the applied field decreases further but keeps in between and away from $H_{C_{2}}$ and $H_{C_{3}}$, the superconducting sheath expands but does not cover the entire surface, and superconductivity at the surface portion orthogonal to the applied field is always very weak. This phenomenon is significantly different to the surface superconductivity on a cylinder of infinite height studied by X. Pan in Comm. Math. Phys., 228 (2002), 327-370, where under an axial applied field lying in-between $H_{C_{2}}$ and $H_{C_{3}}$ the entire surface is in the superconducting state.
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Additional Information
  • Xing-Bin Pan
  • Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China – and – Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260
  • Email:,
  • Received by editor(s): October 12, 2001
  • Received by editor(s) in revised form: May 19, 2003
  • Published electronically: February 4, 2004
  • © Copyright 2004 American Mathematical Society
  • Journal: Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 356 (2004), 3899-3937
  • MSC (2000): Primary 35Q55, 82D55
  • DOI:
  • MathSciNet review: 2058511