Open Math Notes

Resources and inspiration for math instruction and learning

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Welcome to AMS Open Math Notes, a repository of freely downloadable mathematical works in progress hosted by the American Mathematical Society as a service to researchers, teachers and students. These draft works include course notes, textbooks, and research expositions in progress. They have not been published elsewhere, and, as works in progress, are subject to significant revision. Visitors are encouraged to download and use these materials as teaching and research aids, and to send constructive comments and suggestions to the authors.

Open Math Notes Advisory Board:

  • Karen Vogtmann, Chair | University of Warwick
  • Mary Pugh | University of Toronto
  • Andrew Hwang | College of the Holy Cross
  • Robert Lazarsfeld | Stony Brook University


The goal of these notes is to help bridge the gap many students encounter between school and university, regarding the expectations about rigour and proofs. It covers basic logic and set theory, including aspects such as the Axiom of Choice. It also shows how the various systems of numbers can emerge out of set theory.

Amber Habib
Shiv Nadar University

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Open Math Notes authors welcome substantive, useful feedback that helps them develop and improve their notes. Comments submitted through this site may be posted on the Open Math Notes web pages next to the appropriate Note.

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