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Transactions of the American Mathematical Society

ISSN 1088-6850(online) ISSN 0002-9947(print)



Prescribing the binary digits of squarefree numbers and quadratic residues

Authors: Rainer Dietmann, Christian Elsholtz and Igor E. Shparlinski
Journal: Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 369 (2017), 8369-8388
MSC (2010): Primary 11A63, 11B30, 11N25; Secondary 11H06, 11L40, 11P70, 11T30
Published electronically: May 5, 2017
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Abstract: We study the equidistribution of multiplicatively defined sets, such as the squarefree integers, quadratic non-residues or primitive roots, in sets which are described in an additive way, such as sumsets or Hilbert cubes. In particular, we show that if one fixes any proportion less than $ 40\%$ of the digits of all numbers of a given binary bit length, then the remaining set still has the asymptotically expected number of squarefree integers. Next, we investigate the distribution of primitive roots modulo a large prime $ p$, establishing a new upper bound on the largest dimension of a Hilbert cube in the set of primitive roots, improving on a previous result of the authors. Finally, we study sumsets in finite fields and asymptotically find the expected number of quadratic residues and non-residues in such sumsets, given that their cardinalities are big enough. This significantly improves on a recent result by Dartyge, Mauduit and Sárközy. Our approach introduces several new ideas, combining a variety of methods, such as bounds of exponential and character sums, geometry of numbers and additive combinatorics.

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Additional Information

Rainer Dietmann
Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, United Kingdom

Christian Elsholtz
Affiliation: Institute of Analysis and Number Theory, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24/II, A-8010 Graz, Austria

Igor E. Shparlinski
Affiliation: Department of Pure Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia

Keywords: Digital problems, square-free numbers, non-residues, finite fields, Hilbert cubes
Received by editor(s): June 17, 2015
Received by editor(s) in revised form: January 12, 2016
Published electronically: May 5, 2017
Article copyright: © Copyright 2017 American Mathematical Society